of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. To my Venerable Brothers the Cardinals, Patriarchs, Archbishops, Bishops, Priests, Deacons and. Home Page of the Year of FaithWe believeCompendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church The Church is one, holy, catholic, and apostolic. The Faithful: . The Knowledge of God According to the Church nn. IV. How Can .. asked "that a catechism or compendium of all Catholic doctrine regarding both.
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the Catechism of the Catholic Church. If you read the following paragraphs over the 40 days of Lent, you will finish the entire Compendium of. b. Compendium Prelims_b. Prelims 08/11/ Page 1. Compendium of the. CATECHISM OF THE. CATHOLIC CHURCH. CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY. Read Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church PDF Ebook by macawebsrilni.mlhed by, ePUB/PDF B07DDL4NG3, macawebsrilni.ml .
God is not in any way - directly or indirectly - the cause of evil. He illuminates the mystery of evil in his Son Jesus Christ who died and rose in order to vanquish that great moral evil, human sin, which is at the root of all other evils. Why does God permit evil? This was realized in a wondrous way by God in the death and resurrection of Christ. In fact, from the greatest of all moral evils the murder of his Son he has brought forth the greatest of all goods the glorification of Christ and our redemption.
Heaven and Earth What did God create? The Church in her profession of faith proclaims that God is the Creator of everything, visible and invisible, of all spiritual and corporeal beings, that is, of angels and of the visible world and, in a special way, of man.
Who are the angels? They ceaselessly contemplate God face-to-face and they glorify him. They serve him and are his messengers in the accomplishment of his saving mission to all. In what way are angels present in the life of the Church?
What does Sacred Scripture teach about the creation of the visible world? Every single thing owes its very existence to God from whom it receives its goodness and perfection, its proper laws and its proper place in the universe. What is the place of the human person in creation? What kind of bond exists between created things? At the same time, there is also a unity and solidarity among creatures since all have the same Creator, are loved by him and are ordered to his glory.
Respecting the laws inscribed in creation and the relations which derive from the nature of things is, therefore, a principle of wisdom and a foundation for morality.
What is the relationship between the work of creation and the work of redemption? Man Human beings are the only creatures on earth that God has willed for their own sake and has called to share, through knowledge and love, in his own divine life.
All human beings, in as much as they are created in the image of God, have the dignity of a person. A person is not something but someone, capable of self-knowledge and of freely giving himself and entering into communion with God and with other persons.
For what purpose did God create man and woman? Only in the mystery of the incarnate Word does the mystery of the human person come into true light.
Why does the human race form a unity? All have but one Savior and are called to share in the eternal happiness of God.
How do the soul and body form a unity in the human being? In man spirit and matter form one nature. This unity is so profound that, thanks to the spiritual principle which is the soul, the body which is material, becomes a living human body and participates in the dignity of the image of God.
Where does the soul come from? It does not perish at the moment when it is separated from the body in death and it will be once again reunited with the body at the moment of the final resurrection.
What relationship has God established between man and woman? At the same time, they have been created in a reciprocal complementarity insofar as they are masculine and feminine. God has willed them one for the other to form a communion of persons. What was the original condition of the human person according to the plan of God? In the plan of God they would not have had to suffer or die. Furthermore, a perfect harmony held sway within the human person, a harmony between creature and Creator, between man and woman, as well as between the first human couple and all of creation.
The Fall How should we understand the reality of sin? This reality of sin can be understood clearly only in the light of divine revelation and above all in the light of Christ the Savior of all.
Where sin abounded, he made grace to abound all the more. What was the fall of the angels? They were, however, transformed into evil because with a free and irrevocable choice they rejected God and his Kingdom, thus giving rise to the existence of hell.
They try to associate human beings with their revolt against God. However, God has wrought in Christ a sure victory over the Evil One. What was the first human sin? Thus, Adam and Eve immediately lost for themselves and for all their descendants the original grace of holiness and justice. What is original sin? This transmission remains a mystery which we cannot fully understand. What other consequences derive from original sin? It is subject to ignorance, to suffering, and to the dominion of death and is inclined toward sin.
This inclination is called concupiscence. After the first sin, what did God do? This was the first proclamation of the Messiah and Redeemer. What is the Good News for humanity? How is the Good News spread? Even today, from the loving knowledge of Christ there springs up in the believer the desire to evangelize and catechize, that is, to reveal in the Person of Christ the entire design of God and to put humanity in communion with him.
Jesus is the Christ because he is consecrated by God and anointed by the Holy Spirit for his redeeming mission. He is the Messiah awaited by Israel, sent into the world by the Father. From the name Christ comes our name of Christian. He is the central figure of apostolic preaching.
Jesus ascribed this title to himself and revealed his divine sovereignty by his power over nature, over demons, over sin, and over death, above all by his own Resurrection.
He is the Lord of the world and of history, the only One to whom we must completely submit our personal freedom. Why did the Son of God become man? Faith in the Incarnation is a distinctive sign of the Christian faith. In what way is Jesus Christ true God and true man?
What does the Council of Chalcedon in the year teach in this regard? How does the Church set forth the Mystery of the Incarnation?
Therefore, in the humanity of Jesus all things - his miracles, his suffering, and his death - must be attributed to his divine Person which acts by means of his assumed human nature. Did the incarnate Son of God have a soul with human knowledge? With his human intellect Jesus learned many things by way of experience; but also as man the Son of God had an intimate and immediate knowledge of God his Father.
How did the two wills of the incarnate Word cooperate? In his earthly life the Son of God humanly willed all that he had divinely decided with the Father and the Holy Spirit for our salvation. The human will of Christ followed without opposition or reluctance the divine will or, in other words, it was subject to it.
Did Christ have a true human body? This is the reason why Christ can be represented and venerated in sacred images. What does the heart of Jesus exemplify? His Heart, pierced for our salvation, is the symbol of that infinite love with which he loves the Father and each one of us.
He is God himself. In order to carry out her mission she herself was conceived immaculate. This means that, thanks to the grace of God and in anticipation of the merits of Jesus Christ, Mary was preserved from original sin from the first instant of her conception. How does Mary cooperate in the divine plan of salvation?
Mary thus gave herself entirely to the person and work of her Son Jesus, espousing wholeheartedly the divine will regarding salvation. What does the virginal conception of Jesus mean? He is the Son of the heavenly Father according to his divine nature and the Son of Mary according to his human nature.
He is, however, truly the Son of God in both natures since there is in him only one Person who is divine. In what way is the spiritual motherhood of Mary universal? Obediently standing at the side of the new Adam, Jesus Christ, the Virgin is the new Eve, the true mother of all the living, who with a mother's love cooperates in their birth and their formation in the order of grace.
Virgin and Mother, Mary is the figure of the Church, its most perfect realization. In what sense is the life of Christ a Mystery? Furthermore, even though salvation comes completely from the cross and the resurrection, the entire life of Christ is a mystery of redemption because everything that Jesus did, said, and suffered had for its aim the salvation of fallen human beings and the restoration of their vocation as children of God.
How did God prepare the world for the mystery of Christ? He awakened in the hearts of the pagans a dim expectation of this coming and he prepared for it specifically through the Old Testament, culminating with John the Baptist who was the last and greatest of the prophets.
We relive this long period of expectancy in the annual liturgical celebration of the season of Advent. What does the Gospel teach about the mysteries of the birth and infancy of Jesus? What does the hidden life of Jesus in Nazareth teach us? This allows us to enter into fellowship with him in the holiness to be found in a daily life marked by prayer, simplicity, work and family love.
His obedience to Mary and to Joseph, his foster father, is an image of his filial obedience to the Father. Mary and Joseph accepted with faith the mystery of Jesus even though they did not always understand it.
The baptism of Jesus is a prefiguring of our baptism.
What do we learn from the temptations of Jesus in the desert? Satan tempts Jesus in regard to his obedience to the mission given him by the Father. Christ, the new Adam, resists and his victory proclaims that of his passion which is the supreme obedience of his filial love.
The Church unites herself to this mystery in a special way in the liturgical season of Lent. Who is invited to come into the Kingdom of God proclaimed and brought about by Jesus? Even the worst of sinners is called to convert and to accept the boundless mercy of the Father.
Already here on earth, the Kingdom belongs to those who accept it with a humble heart. To them the mysteries of the Kingdom are revealed.
Why did Jesus manifest the Kingdom by means of signs and miracles? Although he healed some people, he did not come to abolish all evils here below but rather to free us especially from the slavery of sin. The Resurrection of Christ was not a return to earthly life. His risen body is that which was crucified and bears the marks of his passion. However it also participates in the divine life, with the characteristics of a glorified body. Because of this the risen Jesus was utterly free to appear to his disciples how and where he wished and under various aspects.
The Resurrection of Christ is a transcendent work of God.
The three Persons act together according to what is proper to them: The Resurrection is the climax of the Incarnation. It confirms the divinity of Christ and all the things which he did and taught. It fulfills all the divine promises made for us. Furthermore the risen Christ, the conqueror of sin and death, is the principle of our justification and our Resurrection. It procures for us now the grace of filial adoption which is a real share in the life of the only begotten Son.
At the end of time he will raise up our bodies. After forty days during which Jesus showed himself to the apostles with ordinary human features which veiled his glory as the Risen One, Christ ascended into heaven and was seated at the right hand of the Father.
He is the Lord who now in his humanity reigns in the everlasting glory of the Son of God and constantly intercedes for us before the Father. He sends us his Spirit and he gives us the hope of one day reaching the place he has prepared for us. As the Lord of the cosmos and of history, the Head of his Church, the glorified Christ mysteriously remains on earth where his kingdom is already present in seed and in its beginning in the Church.
One day he will return in glory but we do not know the time. After the final cosmic upheaval of this passing world the glorious coming of Christ will take place. Then will come the definitive triumph of God in the parousia and the Last Judgment. Thus the Kingdom of God will be realized. Christ will judge with the power he has gained as the Redeemer of the world who came to bring salvation to all.
The secrets of hearts will be brought to light as well as the conduct of each one toward God and toward his neighbor. Everyone, according to how he has lived, will either be filled with life or damned for eternity. I Believe in the Holy Spirit. In the indivisible Trinity, the Son and the Spirit are distinct but inseparable. The Spirit is invisible but we know him through his actions, when he reveals the Word to us and when he acts in the Church. There are many symbols of the Holy Spirit: The Spirit brings the prophecies of the Old Testament to their complete fulfillment in Christ whose mystery he reveals in the New Testament.
The Holy Spirit brought to fulfillment in Mary all the waiting and the preparation of the Old Testament for the coming of Christ.
In a singular way he filled her with grace and made her virginity fruitful so that she could give birth to the Son of God made flesh. What is the relationship between the Spirit and Christ Jesus in his earthly mission? Beginning with his Incarnation, the Son of God was consecrated in his humanity as the Messiah by means of the anointing of the Spirit.
He revealed the Spirit in his teaching, fulfilled the promises made to the Fathers, and bestowed him upon the Church at its birth when he breathed on the apostles after the Resurrection. Fifty days after the Resurrection at Pentecost the glorified Jesus Christ poured out the Spirit in abundance and revealed him as a divine Person so that the Holy Trinity was fully manifest.
The mission of Christ and of the Spirit became the mission of the Church which is sent to proclaim and spread the mystery of the communion of the Holy Trinity. The Spirit builds, animates and sanctifies the Church.
As the Spirit of Love, he restores to the baptized the divine likeness that was lost through sin and causes them to live in Christ the very life of the Holy Trinity. Christ communicates his Spirit and the grace of God through the sacraments to all the members of the Church, who thus bear the fruits of the new life of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit is also the Master of prayer. The Church in the Plan of God.
The word Church refers to the people whom God calls and gathers together from every part of the earth. They form the assembly of those who through faith and Baptism have become children of God, members of Christ, and temples of the Holy Spirit. In Sacred Scripture we find many images which bring out various complementary aspects of the mystery of the Church.
The Old Testament favors those images that are bound to the people of God. The New Testament offers images that are linked to Christ as the Head of this people which is his Body.
Other images are drawn from pastoral life sheepfold, flock, sheep , from agriculture field, olive grove, vineyard , from construction dwelling place, stone, temple , and from family life spouse, mother, family.
The Church finds her origin and fulfillment in the eternal plan of God. She was prepared for in the Old Covenant with the election of Israel, the sign of the future gathering of all the nations. Founded by the words and actions of Jesus Christ, fulfilled by his redeeming death and Resurrection, the Church has been manifested as the mystery of salvation by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.
She will be perfected in the glory of heaven as the assembly of all the redeemed of the earth. The mission of the Church is to proclaim and establish the Kingdom of God begun by Jesus Christ among all peoples. The Church constitutes on earth the seed and beginning of this salvific Kingdom. The Church is a mystery in as much as in her visible reality there is present and active a divine spiritual reality which can only be seen with the eyes of faith.
This means that she is the sign and instrument both of the reconciliation and communion of all of humanity with God and of the unity of the entire human race.
The Church: One becomes a member of this people through faith in Christ and Baptism. This people has for its origin God the Father; for its head Jesus Christ; for its hallmark the dignity and freedom of the sons of God; for its law the new commandment of love; for its mission to be the salt of the earth and the light of the world; and for its destiny the Kingdom of God, already begun on earth.
In what way does the people of God share in the three functions of Christ as Priest, Prophet and King? The people of God participate in Christ's priestly office insofar as the baptized are consecrated by the Holy Spirit to offer spiritual sacrifices.
The people of God share in his kingly office by means of service, imitating Jesus Christ who as King of the universe made himself the servant of all, especially the poor and the suffering. The risen Christ unites his faithful people to himself in an intimate way by means of the Holy Spirit. In this way, those who believe in Christ, in as much as they are close to him especially in the Eucharist, are united among themselves in charity. They form one body, the Church, whose unity is experienced in the diversity of its members and its functions.
The Church lives from him, in him and for him. The Lord has loved the Church and has joined her to himself in an everlasting covenant. She is so called because the Holy Spirit resides in the body which is the Church, in her Head and in her members. He also builds up the Church in charity by the Word of God, the sacraments, the virtues, and charisms. Charisms are special gifts of the Holy Spirit which are bestowed on individuals for the good of others, the needs of the world, and in particular for the building up of the Church.
The discernment of charisms is the responsibility of the Magisterium. The Church is one, holy, catholic, and apostolic. The Church is one because she has as her source and exemplar the unity of the Trinity of Persons in one God. As her Founder and Head, Jesus Christ re-established the unity of all people in one body. As her soul, the Holy Spirit unites all the faithful in communion with Christ. The Church has but one faith, one sacramental life, one apostolic succession, one common hope, and one and the same charity.
The one Church of Christ, as a society constituted and organized in the world, subsists in subsistit in the Catholic Church, governed by the Successor of Peter and the bishops in communion with him. Only through this Church can one obtain the fullness of the means of salvation since the Lord has entrusted all the blessings of the New Covenant to the apostolic college alone whose head is Peter. In the churches and ecclesial communities which are separated from full communion with the Catholic Church, many elements of sanctification and truth can be found.
All of these blessings come from Christ and lead to Catholic unity. Members of these churches and communities are incorporated into Christ by Baptism and we so we recognize them as brothers.
The desire to restore the unity of all Christians is a gift from Christ and a call of the Spirit. This desire involves the entire Church and it is pursued by conversion of heart, prayer, fraternal knowledge of each other and theological dialogue. The Church is holy insofar as the Most Holy God is her author. Christ has given himself for her to sanctify her and make her a source of sanctification.
The Holy Spirit gives her life with charity. In the Church one finds the fullness of the means of salvation. Holiness is the vocation of each of her members and the purpose of all her activities. The Church counts among her members the Virgin Mary and numerous Saints who are her models and intercessors. The holiness of the Church is the fountain of sanctification for her children who here on earth recognize themselves as sinners ever in need of conversion and purification.
The Church is catholic , that is universal , insofar as Christ is present in her: The Church proclaims the fullness and the totality of the faith; she bears and administers the fullness of the means of salvation; she is sent out by Christ on a mission to the whole of the human race. Every particular Church that is, a diocese or eparchy is catholic. All human beings in various ways belong to or are ordered to the Catholic unity of the people of God. Fully incorporated into the Catholic Church are those who, possessing the Spirit of Christ, are joined to the Church by the bonds of the profession of faith, the sacraments, ecclesiastical government and communion.
The baptized who do not enjoy full Catholic unity are in a certain, although imperfect, communion with the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church recognizes a particular link with the Jewish people in the fact that God chose them before all others to receive his Word. The Jewish faith, unlike other non-Christian religions, is already a response to the revelation of God in the Old Covenant.
What is the bond that exists between the Catholic Church and non-Christian religions? There is a bond between all peoples which comes especially from the common origin and end of the entire human race. The Catholic Church recognizes that whatever is good or true in other religions comes from God and is a reflection of his truth.
As such it can prepare for the acceptance of the Gospel and act as a stimulus toward the unity of humanity in the Church of Christ. This means that all salvation comes from Christ, the Head, through the Church which is his body.
Hence they cannot be saved who, knowing the Church as founded by Christ and necessary for salvation, would refuse to enter her or remain in her. At the same time, thanks to Christ and to his Church, those who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ and his Church but sincerely seek God and, moved by grace, try to do his will as it is known through the dictates of conscience can attain eternal salvation. The Church must do so because Christ has given the command: The Church, guided by the Holy Spirit, continues the mission of Christ himself in the course of history.
Christians must, therefore, proclaim to everyone the Good News borne by Christ; and, following his path, they must be ready for self-sacrifice, even unto martyrdom. She is apostolic in her teaching which is the same as that of the Apostles. She is apostolic by reason of her structure insofar as she is taught, sanctified, and guided until Christ returns by the Apostles through their successors who are the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter.
Jesus, the One sent by the Father, called to himself twelve of his disciples and appointed them as his Apostles, making them the chosen witnesses of his Resurrection and the foundation of his Church.
Apostolic succession is the transmission by means of the sacrament of Holy Orders of the mission and power of the Apostles to their successors, the bishops. Thanks to this transmission the Church remains in communion of faith and life with her origin, while through the centuries she carries on her apostolate for the spread of the Kingdom of Christ on earth.
The Faithful: There exists a true equality among them in their dignity as children of God. The other members of the Church are called the laity. In both the hierarchy and the laity there are certain of the faithful who are consecrated in a special manner to God by the profession of the evangelical counsels: Christ instituted an ecclesiastical hierarchy with the mission of feeding the people of God in his name and for this purpose gave it authority.
The hierarchy is formed of sacred ministers,; bishops, priests, and deacons. Thanks to the sacrament of Orders, bishops and priests act in the exercise of their ministry in the name and person of Christ the Head. Deacons minister to the people of God in the diakonia service of word, liturgy, and charity. Every bishop exercises his ministry as a member of the episcopal college in communion with the Pope and shares with him in the care of the universal Church.
Priests exercise their ministry in the presbyterate of the local Church in communion with their own bishop and under his direction. Ecclesial ministry also has a personal character in as much as each minister, in virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, is responsible before Christ who called him personally and conferred on him his mission.
He is the vicar of Christ, the head of the College of bishops and pastor of the universal Church over which he has by divine institution full, supreme, immediate, and universal power. The college of bishops in union with the Pope, and never without him, also exercises supreme and full authority over the Church. Since they are authentic witnesses of the apostolic faith and are invested with the authority of Christ, the bishops in union with the Pope have the duty of proclaiming the Gospel faithfully and authoritatively to all.
By means of a supernatural sense of faith, the people of God unfailingly adhere to the faith under the guidance of the living Magisterium of the Church. Infallibility is exercised when the Roman Pontiff, in virtue of his office as the Supreme Pastor of the Church, or the College of Bishops, in union with the Pope especially when joined together in an Ecumenical Council, proclaim by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals.
Infallibility is also exercised when the Pope and Bishops in their ordinary Magisterium are in agreement in proposing a doctrine as definitive.
Every one of the faithful must adhere to such teaching with the obedience of faith. Bishops sanctify the Church by dispensing the grace of Christ by their ministry of the word and the sacraments, especially the Holy Eucharist, and also by their prayers, their example and their work. Every bishop, insofar as he is a member of the college of bishops, bears collegially the care for all particular Churches and for the entire Church along with all the other bishops who are united to the Pope.
A bishop to whom a particular Church has been entrusted governs that Church with the authority of his own sacred power which is ordinary and immediate and exercised in the name of Christ, the Good Shepherd, in communion with the entire Church and under the guidance of the Successor of Peter. The lay faithful have as their own vocation to seek the Kingdom of God by illuminating and ordering temporal affairs according to the plan of God.
They carry out in this way their call to holiness and to the apostolate, a call given to all the baptized. In this way, even the laity, dedicated to Christ and consecrated by the Holy Spirit, offer to God the world itself. They participate in it by welcoming evermore in faith the Word of Christ and proclaiming it to the world by the witness of their lives, their words, their evangelizing action, and by catechesis. This evangelizing action acquires a particular efficacy because it is accomplished in the ordinary circumstances of the world.
The laity participate in the kingly function of Christ because they have received from him the power to overcome sin in themselves and in the world by self-denial and the holiness of their lives. They exercise various ministries at the service of the community and they imbue temporal activities and the institutions of society with moral values.
The consecrated life is a state of life recognized by the Church. It is a free response to a special call from Christ by which those consecrated give themselves completely to God and strive for the perfection of charity moved by the Holy Spirit. This consecration is characterized by the practice of the evangelical counsels. I believe in the communion of saints. This expression indicates first of all the common sharing of all the members of the Church in holy things sancta: This expression also refers to the communion between holy persons sancti ; that is, between those who by grace are united to the dead and risen Christ.
Some are pilgrims on the earth; others, having passed from this life, are undergoing purification and are helped also by our prayers.
Others already enjoy the glory of God and intercede for us. All of these together form in Christ one family, the Church, to the praise and glory of the Trinity. Mary, Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church. Even after her Assumption into heaven, she continues to intercede for her children, to be a model of faith and charity for all, and to exercise over them a salutary influence deriving from the superabundant merits of Christ.
The faithful see in Mary an image and an anticipation of the resurrection that awaits them and they invoke her as advocate, helper, benefactress and mediatrix.
It is a singular kind of devotion which differs essentially from the cult of adoration given only to the Most Holy Trinity.
This special veneration directed to Mary finds particular expression in the liturgical feasts dedicated to the Mother of God and in Marian prayers such as the holy Rosary which is a compendium of the whole Gospel. Looking upon Mary, who is completely holy and already glorified in body and soul, the Church contemplates in her what she herself is called to be on earth and what she will be in the homeland of heaven.
The first and chief sacrament for the forgiveness of sins is Baptism. For those sins committed after Baptism, Christ instituted the sacrament of Reconciliation or Penance through which a baptized person is reconciled with God and with the Church.
The Church has the mission and the power to forgive sins because Christ himself has conferred it upon her: The resurrection of the flesh is the literal formulation in the Apostles Creed for the resurrection of the body. We believe in God the Creator of the flesh; we believe in the Word made flesh in order to redeem flesh; and we believe in the resurrection of flesh which is the fulfillment of both the creation and the redemption of the flesh.
This means that the definitive state of man will not be one in which his spiritual soul is separated from his body. Even our mortal bodies will one day come to life again.
Just as Christ is truly risen from the dead and now lives forever, so he himself will raise everyone on the last day with an incorruptible body: After death, which is the separation of the body and the soul, the body becomes corrupt while the soul, which is immortal, goes to meet the judgment of God and awaits its reunion with the body when it will rise transformed at the time of the return of the Lord.
How the resurrection of the body will come about exceeds the possibilities of our imagination and understanding.
Belief Briefs - Do miracles really happen?
Dying in Christ Jesus means to die in the state of God's grace without any mortal sin. A believer in Christ, following his example, is thus able to transform his own death into an act of obedience and love for the Father. Eternal life is that life which begins immediately after death. It will have no end. It will be preceded for each person by a particular judgment at the hands of Christ who is the Judge of the living and the dead.
This particular judgement will be confirmed in the final judgment. It is the judgment of immediate retribution which each one after death will receive from God in his immortal soul in accord with his faith and his works. This retribution consists in entrance into the happiness of heaven, immediately or after an appropriate purification, or entry into the eternal damnation of hell. Those who die in the grace of God and have no need of further purification are gathered around Jesus and Mary, the angels and the saints.
They live in a communion of love with the Most Blessed Trinity and they intercede for us. Thanks to his mercy, we too, men that we are, have received the inalienable promise of eternal life.
Because of the communion of saints, the faithful who are still pilgrims on earth are able to help the souls in purgatory by offering prayers in suffrage for them, especially the Eucharistic sacrifice. They also help them by almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance. Hell consists in the eternal damnation of those who die in mortal sin through their own free choice. The principal suffering of hell is eternal separation from God in whom alone we can have the life and happiness for which we were created and for which we long.
Therefore, it is the human person who freely excludes himself from communion with God if at the moment of death he persists in mortal sin and refuses the merciful love of God. After the last judgment, the resurrected body will share in the retribution which the soul received at the particular judgment.
The Celebration of the Christian Mystery. Section One The Sacramental Economy. The liturgy is the celebration of the mystery of Christ and in particular his paschal mystery.
Through the exercise of the priestly office of Jesus Christ the liturgy manifests in signs and brings about the sanctification of humankind. The public worship which is due to God is offered by the Mystical Body of Christ, that is, by its head and by its members. The liturgy as the sacred action par excellence is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed and it is likewise the font from which all her power flows.
Through the liturgy Christ continues the work of our redemption in, with and through his Church. The Paschal Mystery in the Age of the Church. At the same time, the Church blesses the Father by her worship, praise, and thanksgiving and begs him for the gift of his Son and the Holy Spirit. In the liturgy of the Church, it is his own paschal mystery that Christ signifies and makes present. By giving the Holy Spirit to his apostles he entrusted to them and their successors the power to make present the work of salvation through the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments, in which he himself acts to communicate his grace to the faithful of all times and places throughout the world.
The very closest cooperation is at work in the liturgy between the Holy Spirit and the Church. The Holy Spirit prepares the Church to encounter her Lord. He recalls and manifests Christ to the faith of the assembly. He makes the mystery of Christ really present.
He unites the Church to the life and mission of Christ and makes the gift of communion bear fruit in the Church. The sacraments, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, are efficacious signs of grace perceptible to the senses.
Through them divine life is bestowed upon us. There are seven sacraments: Christ has entrusted the sacraments to his Church. It is a promise and guarantee of divine protection.
By virtue of this seal the Christian is configured to Christ, participates in a variety of ways in his priesthood and takes his part in the Church according to different states and functions. He is, therefore, set apart for divine worship and the service of the Church.
Because this character is indelible the sacraments that impress it on the soul are received only once in life. The sacraments not only presuppose faith but with words and ritual elements they nourish, strengthen, and express it. By celebrating the sacraments, the Church professes the faith that comes from the apostles. The efficacy of the sacraments does not depend upon the personal holiness of the minister.
However, the fruits of the sacraments do depend on the dispositions of the one who receives them. For believers in Christ the sacraments, even if they are not all given to each of the faithful, are necessary for salvation because they confer sacramental grace, forgiveness of sins, adoption as children of God, conformation to Christ the Lord and membership in the Church. The Holy Spirit heals and transforms those who receive the sacraments.
Sacramental grace is the grace of the Holy Spirit which is given by Christ and is proper to each sacrament. This grace helps the faithful in their journey toward holiness and so assists the Church as well to grow in charity and in her witness to the world. The Sacramental Celebration of the Paschal Mystery. As our High Priest he celebrates with his body, which is the Church in heaven and on earth. When we celebrate the mystery of our salvation in the sacraments we participate in this eternal liturgy.
The Church on earth celebrates the liturgy as a priestly people in which each one acts according to his proper function in the unity of the Holy Spirit. The baptized offer themselves in a spiritual sacrifice; the ordained ministers celebrate according to the Order they received for the service of all the members of the Church; the bishops and priests act in the Person of Christ the Head.
The celebration of the liturgy is interwoven with signs and symbols whose meaning is rooted in creation and in human culture. It is determined by the events of the Old Testament and is fully revealed in the Person and work of Christ. Some come from created things light, water, fire, bread, wine, oil ; others come from social life washing, anointing, breaking of bread.
Still others come from the history of salvation in the Old Covenant the Passover rites, the sacrifices, the laying on of hands, the consecrations. These signs, some of which are normative and unchangeable, were taken up by Christ and are made the bearers of his saving and sanctifying action. What is the link between the actions and the words in the celebration of the sacraments? Actions and words are very closely linked in the celebration of the sacraments.
Indeed, even if the symbolic actions are already in themselves a language, it is necessary that the words of the rite accompany and give life to these actions. The liturgical words and actions are inseparable both insofar as they are meaningful signs and insofar as they bring about what they signify.
What are the criteria for the proper use of singing and music in liturgical celebrations? Since song and music are closely connected with liturgical action they must respect the following criteria. They should conform to Catholic doctrine in their texts, drawn preferably from Sacred Scripture and liturgical sources.
They should be a beautiful expression of prayer. The music should be of a high quality. Song and music should encourage the participation of the liturgical assembly. They should express the cultural richness of the People of God and the sacred and solemn character of the celebration. The image of Christ is the liturgical icon par excellence.
Other images, representations of Our Lady and of the Saints, signify Christ who is glorified in them. They proclaim the same Gospel message that Sacred Scripture communicates by the word and they help to awaken and nourish the faith of believers.
The center of the liturgical season is Sunday which is the foundation and kernel of the entire liturgical year and has its culmination in the annual celebration of Easter, the feast of feasts. In the liturgical year the Church celebrates the whole mystery of Christ from his Incarnation to his return in glory.
The Church also keeps the memorials of saints who lived for Christ, who suffered with him, and who live with him in glory. The Liturgy of the Hours, which is the public and common prayer of the Church, is the prayer of Christ with his body, the Church. Through the Liturgy of the Hours the mystery of Christ, which we celebrate in the Eucharist, sanctifies and transforms the whole of each day.
It is composed mainly of psalms, other biblical texts, and readings from the Fathers and spiritual masters. Through him Christians and the whole Church become temples of the living God by the action of the Holy Spirit. Nonetheless, the people of God in their earthly condition need places in which the community can gather to celebrate the liturgy.
They are the houses of God, a symbol of the Church that lives in that place as well as of the heavenly Jerusalem. Above all they are places of prayer in which the Church celebrates the Eucharist and worships Christ who is truly present in the tabernacle.
COMPENDIUM OF THE CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
They are: Why is the one Mystery of Christ celebrated by the Church according to various liturgical traditions? The answer is that the unfathomable richness of the mystery of Christ cannot be exhausted by any single liturgical tradition. From the very beginning, therefore, this richness found expression among various peoples and cultures in ways that are characterized by a wonderful diversity and complementarity.
It is fidelity to the Apostolic Tradition, that is, the communion in the faith and in the sacraments received from the apostles, a communion that is both signified and guaranteed by apostolic succession. The Church is Catholic and therefore can integrate into her unity all the authentic riches of cultures.
In the liturgy, particularly in that of the sacraments, there are unchangeable elements because they are of divine institution. The Church is the faithful guardian of them.
There are also, however, elements subject to change which the Church has the power and on occasion also the duty to adapt to the cultures of diverse peoples.
The sacraments are divided into: The sacraments touch all the important moments of Christian life. The sacraments of Christian initiation.
Christian initiation is accomplished by means of the sacraments which establish the foundations of Christian life. The faithful born anew by Baptism are strengthened by Confirmation and are then nourished by the Eucharist. In the Old Covenant Baptism was pre-figured in various ways: All the Old Covenant prefigurations find their fulfillment in Jesus Christ.
At the beginning of his public life Jesus had himself baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan. On the cross, blood and water, signs of Baptism and the Eucharist, flowed from his pierced side.
After his Resurrection he gave to his apostles this mission: From the day of Pentecost, the Church has administered Baptism to anyone who believes in Jesus Christ.
Compendium of the Catechism
The essential rite of this sacrament consists in immersing the candidate in water or pouring water over his or her head while invoking the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. The Church baptizes infants because they are born with original sin. They need to be freed from the power of the Evil One and brought into that realm of freedom which belongs to the children of God.
Everyone who is to be baptized is required to make a profession of faith. This is done personally in the case of an adult or by the parents and by the Church in the case of infants. Also the godfather or the godmother and the whole ecclesial community share the responsibility for baptismal preparation catechumenate as well as for the development and safeguarding of the faith and grace given at baptism.
The ordinary ministers of Baptism are the bishop and the priest. In the Latin Church the deacon also can baptize. In case of necessity any person can baptize provided he has the intention of doing what the Church does.
This is done by pouring water on the head of the candidate while saying the Trinitarian formula for Baptism: Baptism is necessary for salvation for all those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament. Since Christ died for the salvation of all, those can be saved without Baptism who die for the faith Baptism of blood.
Catechumens and all those who, even without knowing Christ and the Church, still under the impulse of grace sincerely seek God and strive to do his will can also be saved without Baptism Baptism of desire. The Church in her liturgy entrusts children who die without Baptism to the mercy of God.
Baptism takes away original sin, all personal sins and all punishment due to sin. It makes the baptized person a participant in the divine life of the Trinity through sanctifying grace, the grace of justification which incorporates one into Christ and into his Church. It gives one a share in the priesthood of Christ and provides the basis for communion with all Christians. It bestows the theological virtues and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. A baptized person belongs forever to Christ.
He is marked with the indelible seal of Christ character. The name is important because God knows each of us by name, that is, in our uniqueness as persons.
In Baptism a Christian receives his or her own name in the Church. It should preferably be the name of a saint who might offer the baptized a model of sanctity and an assurance of his or her intercession before God. In the Old Testament the prophets announced that the Spirit of the Lord would rest on the awaited Messiah and on the entire messianic people. The whole life and mission of Jesus were carried out in total communion with the Holy Spirit.
They gave the gift of the same Spirit to the newly baptized by the laying on of hands. Down through the centuries, the Church has continued to live by the Spirit and to impart him to her children. It is called Chrismation in the Eastern Churches: Anointing with holy myron or chrism because the essential rite of the sacrament is anointing with chrism.
It is called Confirmation because it confirms and strengthens baptismal grace. The essential rite of Confirmation is the anointing with Sacred Chrism oil mixed with balsam and consecrated by the bishop , which is done by the laying on of the hand of the minister who pronounces the sacramental words proper to the rite.
The effect of Confirmation is a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit like that of Pentecost. This outpouring impresses on the soul an indelible character and produces a growth in the grace of Baptism. It roots the recipient more deeply in divine sonship, binds him more firmly to Christ and to the Church and reinvigorates the gifts of the Holy Spirit in his soul.
It gives a special strength to witness to the Christian faith. Only those already baptized can and should receive this sacrament which can be received only once. To receive Confirmation efficaciously the candidate must be in the state of grace. The original minister of Confirmation is the bishop. In this way the link between the confirmed and the Church in her apostolic dimension is made manifest.
When a priest confers this sacrament, as ordinarily happens in the East and in special cases in the West, the link with the bishop and with the Church is expressed by the priest who is the collaborator of the bishop and by the Sacred Chrism, consecrated by the bishop himself. The Eucharist is the very sacrifice of the Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus which he instituted to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross throughout the ages until his return in glory.
Thus he entrusted to his Church this memorial of his death and Resurrection. It is a sign of unity, a bond of charity, a paschal banquet, in which Christ is consumed, the mind is filled with grace, and a pledge of future glory is given to us.
After he had gathered with his apostles in the Cenacle, Jesus took bread in his hands. This is the cup of my Blood, the Blood of the new and everlasting covenant.
It will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgive. It is the source and summit of all Christian life. In the Eucharist, the sanctifying action of God in our regard and our worship of him reach their high point.
It contains the whole spiritual good of the Church, Christ himself, our Pasch. Communion with divine life and the unity of the People of God are both expressed and effected by the Eucharist. Through the eucharistic celebration we are united already with the liturgy of heaven and we have a foretaste of eternal life. The unfathomable richness of this sacrament is expressed in different names which evoke its various aspects.
The most common names are: The Eucharist was foreshadowed in the Old Covenant above all in the annual Passover meal celebrated every year by the Jews with unleavened bread to commemorate their hasty, liberating departure from Egypt.
Jesus foretold it in his teaching and he instituted it when he celebrated the Last Supper with his apostles in a Passover meal. The Eucharist unfolds in two great parts which together form one, single act of worship. The Liturgy of the Word involves proclaiming and listening to the Word of God. The Liturgy of the Eucharist includes the presentation of the bread and wine, the prayer or the anaphora containing the words of consecration, and communion.
The celebrant of the Eucharist is a validly ordained priest bishop or priest who acts in the Person of Christ the Head and in the name of the Church. The Eucharist is a memorial in the sense that it makes present and actual the sacrifice which Christ offered to the Father on the cross, once and for all on behalf of mankind. The sacrifice of the cross and the sacrifice of the Eucharist are one and the same sacrifice.
The priest and the victim are the same; only the manner of offering is different: In the Eucharist the sacrifice of Christ becomes also the sacrifice of the members of his Body. The lives of the faithful, their praise, their suffering, their prayers, their work, are united to those of Christ.
In as much as it is a sacrifice, the Eucharist is likewise offered for all the faithful, living and dead, in reparation for the sins of all and to obtain spiritual and temporal benefits from God. The Church in heaven is also united to the offering of Christ. Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist in a unique and incomparable way. He is present in a true, real and substantial way, with his Body and his Blood, with his Soul and his Divinity.
In the Eucharist, therefore, there is present in a sacramental way, that is, under the Eucharistic species of bread and wine, Christ whole and entire, God and Man. This change is brought about in the eucharistic prayer through the efficacy of the word of Christ and by the action of the Holy Spirit. The breaking of the bread does not divide Christ.
He is present whole and entire in each of the eucharistic species and in each of their parts.
The worship due to the sacrament of the Eucharist, whether during the celebration of the Mass or outside it, is the worship of latria , that is, the adoration given to God alone. The Church guards with the greatest care Hosts that have been consecrated. She brings them to the sick and to other persons who find it impossible to participate at Mass.
She also presents them for the solemn adoration of the faithful and she bears them in processions. The Church encourages the faithful to make frequent visits to adore the Blessed Sacrament reserved in the tabernacle. The Holy Eucharist is the paschal banquet in as much as Christ sacramentally makes present his Passover and gives us his Body and Blood, offered as food and drink, uniting us to himself and to one another in his sacrifice. The altar is the symbol of Christ himself who is present both as sacrificial victim the altar of the sacrifice and as food from heaven which is given to us the table of the Lord.
The Church obliges the faithful to participate at Holy Mass every Sunday and on holy days of obligation. She recommends participation at Holy Mass on other days as well. The Church recommends that the faithful, if they have the required dispositions, receive Holy Communion whenever they participate at Holy Mass.
However, the Church obliges them to receive Holy Communion at least once a year during the Easter season. To receive Holy Communion one must be fully incorporated into the Catholic Church and be in the state of grace, that is, not conscious of being in mortal sin.
Anyone who is conscious of having committed a grave sin must first receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before going to Communion. Also important for those receiving Holy Communion are a spirit of recollection and prayer, observance of the fast prescribed by the Church, and an appropriate disposition of the body gestures and dress as a sign of respect for Christ. Holy Communion increases our union with Christ and with his Church.
It preserves and renews the life of grace received at Baptism and Confirmation and makes us grow in love for our neighbor. It strengthens us in charity, wipes away venial sins and preserves us from mortal sin in the future. Catholic ministers may give Holy Communion licitly to members of the Oriental Churches which are not in full communion with the Catholic Church whenever they ask for it of their own will and possess the required dispositions.
Catholic ministers may licitly give Holy Communion to members of other ecclesial communities only if, in grave necessity, they ask for it of their own will, possess the required dispositions, and give evidence of holding the Catholic faith regarding the sacrament.
The Eucharist is a pledge of future glory because it fills us with every grace and heavenly blessing. It fortifies us for our pilgrimage in this life and makes us long for eternal life. It unites us already to Christ seated at the right hand of the Father, to the Church in heaven and to the Blessed Virgin and all the saints. The Sacraments of Healing.
Christ, the physician of our soul and body, instituted these sacraments because the new life that he gives us in the sacraments of Christian initiation can be weakened and even lost because of sin.
Therefore, Christ willed that his Church should continue his work of healing and salvation by means of these two sacraments. It is called the sacrament of Penance, the sacrament of Reconciliation, the sacrament of Forgiveness, the sacrament of Confession, and the sacrament of Conversion.
Since the new life of grace received in Baptism does not abolish the weakness of human nature nor the inclination to sin that is, concupiscence , Christ instituted this sacrament for the conversion of the baptized who have been separated from him by sin.
If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained. The call of Christ to conversion continues to resound in the lives of the baptized.
Conversion is a continuing obligation for the whole Church. She is holy but includes sinners in her midst. This entails sorrow for and abhorrence of sins committed, a firm purpose not to sin again in the future and trust in the help of God.
It is nourished by hope in divine mercy. Penance can be expressed in many and various ways but above all in fasting, prayer, and almsgiving. These and many other forms of penance can be practiced in the daily life of a Christian, particularly during the time of Lent and on the penitential day of Friday. The essential elements are two: All grave sins not yet confessed, which a careful examination of conscience brings to mind, must be brought to the sacrament of Penance.
The confession of serious sins is the only ordinary way to obtain forgiveness. Each of the faithful who has reached the age of discretion is bound to confess his or her mortal sins at least once a year and always before receiving Holy Communion. The confession of venial sins is strongly recommended by the Church, even if this is not strictly necessary, because it helps us to form a correct conscience and to fight against evil tendencies.
It allows us to be healed by Christ and to progress in the life of the Spirit. Christ has entrusted the ministry of Reconciliation to his apostles, to the bishops who are their successors and to the priests who are the collaborators of the bishops, all of whom become thereby instruments of the mercy and justice of God.
They exercise their power of forgiving sins in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. The absolution of certain particularly grave sins like those punished by excommunication is reserved to the Apostolic See or to the local bishop or to priests who are authorized by them.
Any priest, however, can absolve a person who is in danger of death from any sin and excommunication. The effects of the sacrament of Penance are: Can this sacrament be celebrated in some cases with a general confession and general absolution?
Indulgences are the remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven. The faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains the indulgence under prescribed conditions for either himself or the departed. Indulgences are granted through the ministry of the Church which, as the dispenser of the grace of redemption, distributes the treasury of the merits of Christ and the Saints.
In the Old Testament sickness was experienced as a sign of weakness and at the same time perceived as mysteriously bound up with sin. Thus sickness was lived out in the presence of God from whom people implored healing. The compassion of Jesus toward the sick and his many healings of the infirm were a clear sign that with him had come the Kingdom of God and therefore victory over sin, over suffering, and over death.
By his own passion and death he gave new meaning to our suffering which, when united with his own, can become a means of purification and of salvation for us and for others. Having received from the Lord the charge to heal the sick, the Church strives to carry it out by taking care of the sick and accompanying them with her prayer of intercession. Above all, the Church possesses a sacrament specifically intended for the benefit of the sick. This sacrament was instituted by Christ and is attested by Saint James: Any member of the faithful can receive this sacrament as soon as he or she begins to be in danger of death because of sickness or old age.
The faithful who receive this sacrament can receive it several times if their illness becomes worse or another serious sickness afflicts them. The celebration of this sacrament should, if possible, be preceded by individual confession on the part of the sick person. The celebration of this sacrament consists essentially in an anointing with oil which may be blessed by the bishop. The anointing is on the forehead and on the hands of the sick person in the Roman rite or also on other parts of the body in the other rites accompanied by the prayer of the priest who asks for the special grace of this sacrament.
This sacrament confers a special grace which unites the sick person more intimately to the Passion of Christ for his good and for the good of all the Church. It gives comfort, peace, courage, and even the forgiveness of sins if the sick person is not able to make a confession. Sometimes, if it is the will of God, this sacrament even brings about the restoration of physical health.
Viaticum is the Holy Eucharist received by those who are about to leave this earthly life and are preparing for the journey to eternal life.
Communion in the body and blood of Christ who died and rose from the dead, received at the moment of passing from this world to the Father, is the seed of eternal life and the power of the resurrection. The Sacraments at the Service of Communion and Mission.
Two sacraments, Holy Orders and Matrimony, confer a special grace for a particular mission in the Church to serve and build up the People of God. These sacraments contribute in a special way to ecclesial communion and to the salvation of others. It is the sacrament through which the mission entrusted by Christ to his apostles continues to be exercised in the Church until the end of time. Through a special gift of the Holy Spirit, this sacrament enables the ordained to exercise a sacred power in the name and with the authority of Christ for the service of the People of God.
The one priesthood of Christ is made present in the ministerial priesthood. The sacrament of Holy Orders is composed of three degrees which are irreplaceable for the organic structure of the Church: Episcopal ordination confers the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders. It makes the bishop a legitimate successor of the apostles and integrates him into the episcopal college to share with the Pope and the other bishops care for all the churches.
It confers on him the offices of teaching, sanctifying, and ruling. The bishop to whom the care of a particular Church is entrusted is the visible head and foundation of unity for that Church. For the sake of that Church, as vicar of Christ, he fulfills the office of shepherd and is assisted by his own priests and deacons. The anointing of the Spirit seals the priest with an indelible, spiritual character that configures him to Christ the priest and enables him to act in the name of Christ the Head.
As a co-worker of the order of bishops he is consecrated to preach the Gospel, to celebrate divine worship, especially the Eucharist from which his ministry draws its strength, and to be a shepherd of the faithful. A priest, although ordained for a universal mission, exercises his ministry in a particular Church. In communion with the bishop, and depending upon him, they bear responsibility for the particular Church.
The deacon, configured to Christ the servant of all, is ordained for service to the Church. He carries out this service under the authority of his proper bishop by the ministry of the Word, of divine worship, of pastoral care and of charity.The absolution of certain particularly grave sins like those punished by excommunication is reserved to the Apostolic See or to the local bishop or to priests who are authorized by them.
By celebrating the sacraments, the Church professes the faith that comes from the apostles. Sin is present in human history. Scripture is one insofar as the Word of God is one. The idea of a catechism is not new. Ordination confers an indelible spiritual character and therefore cannot be repeated or conferred for a limited time. What symbols are used to represent the Holy Spirit? Artists in every age have offered the principal facts of the mystery of salvation to the contemplation and wonder of believers by presenting them in the splendour of colour and in the perfection of beauty.
When is the liturgy celebrated?